Usually, criminal complaints are brought against individuals, but sometimes corporations are held accountable as well, especially in terms of restitution and fines. Technically speaking, however, offenses committed by a corporation are called "corporate crime," or "organizational crime. This division of white collar crime categories into two types—occupational and corporate—was advanced by criminologists Marshall B.
Research Paper Help Writing a research paper on any topic is a daunting task and it becomes more so when you have to create your own topic from the subject matter provided by your teacher as well as set the creative direction of the paper.
Therefore, this article was written to provide direction on choosing research topics on white collar crime. Also the sample essay below should serve as your manual or tutorial guide on developing a selected topic in such a way that ensures your paper turns out well structured, coherent and rewards you the best mark for your effort.
These topics which are obviously controversial in nature have enough information that can be found online or in your local library, to make developing them relatively easy. As stated earlier, a sample paper which should serve as a template for anyone planning to write about white collar crimes will be provided in this guide.
Sentencing Disparities between White Collar Crimes and Street Crimes To clarify the sentencing issues that arise, it is important to first understand the distinction between white collar crime and street crime according to the United States Department of Justice system.
According to Edwin Sutherland, a prominent criminologist, white collar crimes or corporate crimes are financially motivated nonviolent crimes committed by business and government professionals.
Street crimes on the other hand, are criminal offences that occur in public places and perpetrated for quick financial gain.
In both situations, the underlying cause for perpetrating criminal activities is financial gain although the means of erring against the law may vary.
According to the FBI, in white collar crimes perpetrators make use of deceit, concealment and violation of trust to accomplish the crime while perpetrators of street crime employ violence, threats and the inspiration of fear for financial gain.
Statistics from the Federal Bureau of Prisons show that only 0. Further analysis of the United States Sentencing Commission USSC guidelines show a pattern of less severe sentencing pattern for white collar crimes, namely perpetrators of financial fraud such as insider trading simply receiving fines, community service or in more severe cases suspended jail time.
In contrast, perpetrators of non-violent street crimes do not evade prison and are pushed to serve a prison sentence. Jet Rakoff, a federal senior judge of Southern New York were Wall Street crimes had occurred, termed the Federal sentencing guides as too simplistic, leading to no incarceration of high-level executives charged with corporate crime.
Various reasons have been given for these sentencing disparities and they include: In terms of non-violence, the widely accepted belief that corporate crime is non-violent has been disproven due to the high number of suicides and work related accidents that occur as a byproduct of financial recklessness and the USSC guidelines has finally taken this into consideration.
The media has been accused of hypocrisy in its coverage of corporate crime on the diverse channels of news dispersion platforms available to them. This is in part due to securing their best interest, for most news outlets are owned or part-owned by big corporations. Encouragingly, steps have been taken to ensure that perpetrators of white collar crimes pay for their actions as can be seen from the USSC guidelines which encourage increased sentences for individuals involved in cases of large scale fraud.
The 9 years prison sentence given to Matthew Martoma for insider trading while working at SAC Capital Advisors has created a precedence for longer jail terms and it could serve as a deterrence to others.
The Savings and Loan Crisis.A white-collar crime is defined as a crime that is committed in the course of occupation by a respectable person and of high social status that is against the standards of an organization. It can happen knowingly or unknowingly to the victim and may occur in the form of, for instance, fraud.
The white collar crime demographic in the United States has also been mapped out by the FBI and statistics show that the south contributes a larger percentage to white collar crime than any other region in the United States.
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How much white collar crime actually exists in the society is determined by the organizational resources available to uncover, investigate, and prosecute it, and more generally, enforce what most experts already regard as inadequate laws aimed at its control.
An Introduction To White Collar Crimes Criminology Essay. Print Reference this White-collar crime was defined by Edwin Sutherland as a “crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” Bankruptcy fraud is often used to facilitate other white collar crimes such as money laundering.
White Collar Crime Research Paper Starter collect information on only three categories of what is considered to be white collar crime: .