Cell Respiration Respiration is the process by which organisms burn food to produce energy. The starting material of cellular respiration is the sugar glucose, which has energy stored in its chemical bonds. You can think of glucose as a kind of cellular piece of coal: Just as burning coal produces heat and energy in the form of electricity, the chemical processes of respiration convert the energy in glucose into usable form.
Adenosine triphosphate ATP is the usable form of energy produced by respiration. ATP is like electricity: It has a ribose sugar attached to the nitrogenous base adenine. Each of the ATP phosphate groups carries a negative charge.
In order to hold the three negative charges in such proximity, the bonds holding the phosphate groups have to be quite powerful.
If one or two of the bonds are broken and the additional phosphates are freed, the energy stored in the bonds is released and can be used to fuel other chemical reactions.
When the cell needs energy, it removes phosphates from ATP by hydrolysis, creating energy and either adenosine diphosphate ADPwhich has two phosphates, or adenosine monophosphate AMPwhich has one phosphate. Respiration is the process of making ATP rather than breaking it down.
There are actually two general types of respiration, aerobic and anaerobic.
Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen, while anaerobic respiration does not use oxygen. Both types of cell respiration begin with the process of glycolysis, after which the two diverge. Aerobic Cell Respiration Aerobic respiration is more efficient and more complicated than anaerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce carbon dioxide, water, and ATP. More precisely, this process involves six oxygen molecules for every sugar molecule: Typically, the SAT II Biology only asks questions about the starting and ending products of each stage and the location where each takes place.
Understanding the internal details of stages will help you remember these key facts and prepare you in case the testers throw in a more difficult question, but the details of all the complex reactions will probably not be tested by the SAT II.
Glycolysis Glycolysis is the first stage of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. It takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. The chemical formula for glycolysis is: The 2 NADH molecules travel to the mitochondria, where, in the next two stages of aerobic respiration, the energy stored in them is converted to ATP.
The most important things to remember about glycolysis are: Glycolysis is part of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Glycolysis splits glucose, a six-carbon compound, into two pyruvate molecules, each of which has three carbons.
Unlike the rest of aerobic respiration, which takes place in the mitochondria, glycolysis takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell.Play a game of Kahoot!
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Paul Andersen explains the two major portions of the molecular biology lab in AP Biology. He starts by discussing the process of transformation. Play a game of Kahoot! here. Kahoot! is a free game-based learning platform that makes it fun to learn – any subject, in any language, on any device, for all ages!