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The Chemistry of Fireworks Click to enlarge The colours in fireworks stem from a wide variety of metal compounds — particularly metal salts.
So, how do these compounds give the huge range of colours, and what else is needed to produce fireworks?
It was discovered by chance by Chinese alchemists, who were in actuality more concerned with discovering the elixir of life than blowing things up; they found that a combination of honey, sulfur and saltpetre potassium nitrate would suddenly erupt into flame upon heating.
The combination of sulfur and potassium nitrate was later joined by charcoal in the place of honey — the sulfur and charcoal act as fuels in the reaction, whilst the potassium nitrate works as an oxidising agent.
Modern black powder has a saltpetre to charcoal to sulfur weight ratio of The closest thing to a representative equation for the process is shown below, with charcoal referred to by its empirical formula: Generally they will take the form of an organic compound, often dextrinwhich can then act as a fuel after ignition.
An oxidising agent is also necessary to produce the oxygen required to burn the mixture; these are usually nitrate, chlorates, or perchlorates. They will often be coated in gunpowder to aid in ignition. The heat given off by the combustion reaction causes electrons in the metal atoms to be excited to higher energy levels.
These excited states are unstable, so the electron quickly returns to its original energy or ground stateemitting excess energy as light. Different metals will have a different energy gap between their ground and excited states, leading to the emission of different colours.
This is the exact same reason that different metals give different flame testsallowing us to distinguish between them. The colours emitted by different metals are shown in the graphic at the top of the page. Some colours are also notoriously hard to produce.
Purple is also quite hard to produce, as it involves the use of blue-causing compounds in combination with red-causing ones.Overview of common consumer fireworks, chemical composition and legal regulations.
• High forensic interest in the analysis of pre-blast devices and post-blast residues.
• Discussion of main techniques used to determine consumer fireworks. • Information for police laboratories to identify consumer fireworks in . Accordingly, the objective of this study was to investigate the influences of fireworks on atmospheric particulate matter (PM) including its mass concentration and chemical properties.
To further investigate the impact of fireworks during Taiwan's Lantern Festival, source identification and apportionment of PM were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor . Introduction to Explosives FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Military Explosives – C4 – HMX – PETN – RDX Properties, and Overview American name for the 4th generation of – Also used for fireworks, model rocket engines, .
An analysis of the properties of fireworks by | Mar 30, | Uncategorized | 0 comments Vick upiscussed and resinated uprear their brainstorming counterparts or cool axes.
The fireworks industry uses compounds of lead, barium and antimony in the manufacture of a variety of pyrotechnic devices, with all three elements sometimes being present in the same device. The most commonly used binder is known as dextrin, a type of starch which holds the composition together.
Paron can also be used in binding, however it is less common and only used in conjunction with red and green fireworks as it helps to enhance their colour.