Public Domain "It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen. But when you see the original manuscript, you find something else: Probably the definitive novel of the 20th century, a story that remains eternally fresh and contemporary, and whose terms such as "Big Brother", "doublethink" and "newspeak" have become part of everyday currency, Nineteen Eighty-Four has been translated into more than 65 languages and sold millions of copies worldwide, giving George Orwell a unique place in world literature.
Fagan Pennsylvania State University Introduction Augustus is arguably the single most important figure in Roman history. In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries.
This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history.
Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated.
Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight.
With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: The Roman Republic had no written constitution but was, rather, a system of agreed-upon procedures crystallized by tradition the mos maiorum, "the way of our ancestors".
Administration was carried out by mostly annually elected officials, answerable to the senate a senior council, but with no legislative powers and the people who, when constituted into voting assemblies, were the sovereign body of the state.
Precedent prescribed procedure and consensus set the parameters for acceptable behavior. Near the end of the second century BC, however, the system started to break down. Politicians began to push at the boundaries of acceptable behavior, and in so doing set new and perilous precedents.
Violence also entered the arena of domestic politics. This long process of disintegration, completed a century later by Augustus, has been termed by modern scholars the "Roman Revolution.
Politics had come to be dominated by violence and intimidation; scores were settled with clubs and daggers rather than with speeches and persuasion. Powerful generals at the head of politicized armies extorted from the state more and greater power for themselves and their supporters.
When "constitutional" methods proved inadequate, the generals occasionally resorted to open rebellion. Intimidation of the senate through the use of armies camped near Rome or veterans brought to the city to influence the voting assemblies also proved effective and was regularly employed as a political tactic from ca.
These generals also used their provincial commands to extract money from the locals as a way of funding their domestic political ambitions. As the conflict in the state wore on, popular assemblies, the only avenue for the passage of binding legislation in the Roman Republic, routinely ended in disorder and rioting.
The senatorial aristocracy, riven by internal disputes, proved incapable of dealing effectively with the mounting disorder, yet the alternative, monarchy, was not openly proposed by anyone.
When civil war erupted between Pompey and Caesar in 49 BC, few could have been surprised.Nineteen Eighty-Four, often published as , is a dystopian novel by English author George Orwell published in June The novel is set in the year when most of the world population have become victims of perpetual war, omnipresent government surveillance and propaganda..
In the novel, Great Britain ("Airstrip One") has become a province of a superstate named Oceania. The theme of totalitarianism is a prominent theme in this 20th century novel.
by George Orwell features a futuristic dictatorship where humanity is controlled by the government. In Oceania, The Party is the ruling assembly, whose head is Big Brother, that controls all aspects of human life 3/5(3).
Project Gutenberg Australia a treasure-trove of literature treasure found hidden with no evidence of ownership. Essay on The Totalitarian Government of a Novel Written by George Orwell - The novel is written by George Orwell post war as a depiction of the future.
Only three superstates exist: Oceania, Eurasia and Eastasia. The novel takes place in Airstrip One, Oceania, which is the novel’s version of present day London. Orwell’s Totalitarian Government in Essay Words | 7 Pages.
George Orwell’s key objective throughout his novel, , was to convey to his readers the imminent threat of the severe danger that totalitarianism could mean for the world. George Orwell’s “” presents the consequences of totalitarianism to warn present and future generations of submitting to dictatorship.
With the party’s ultimate ambition of controlling and altering reality, it leads to eradication of privacy, freedom, individuality and peace for its people.